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Angel Reyes
Angel Reyes

Thermal Physics Of The Atmosphere (Advancing We...

The book starts by covering the basics of thermodynamics and its applications in atmospheric science. The later chapters describe major applications, specific to more specialized areas of atmospheric physics, including vertical structure and stability, cloud formation, and radiative processes. The book concludes with a discussion of non-equilibrium thermodynamics as applied to the atmosphere.

Thermal Physics of the Atmosphere (Advancing We...

Second part of an accelerated two semester calculus-based introductory course in electricity and magnetism, optics, and topics in thermal physics designed for Physics majors and Honors students. The important laws of physics in these areas and problem solving are emphasized. Problem solving is an integral part of the course. Conceptual understanding is reinforced using interactive computer-based techniques, demonstrations, and extended laboratory experiences.

Fundamental concepts of condensed matter and applications to problems in current theoretical and applied physics are presented. Topics covered include crystal structure, lattice vibrations, phonons, thermal properties of matter, free electron theory of metals, band theory, semiconductors, superconductors, optical properties of solids and magnetism. Problem solving and computer projects are integral parts of the course.

Fundamental research focused on improving understanding of the physical processes in the geospace environment is encouraged. Particular goals are to improve operational forecasting and specification of solar activity, thermospheric neutral densities, and ionospheric irregularities and scintillations. Activities that support these goals may include validating, enhancing, or extending solar, ionospheric, or thermospheric models; investigating or applying data assimilation techniques; and developing or extending statistical or empirical models. An important aspect of the physics is understanding and represents the coupling between regions, such as between the solar corona and solar wind, between the magnetosphere and ionosphere, between the lower atmosphere and the thermosphere/ionosphere, and between the equatorial, middle latitude, and Polar Regions.

A coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean modeling framework has been developed for HWRF and GFDL hurricane predictions systems that is based on a comprehensive, physics-based treatment of the wind-wave-current interaction. In this framework, the surface boundary condition of the atmospheric model incorporates the sea-state dependent air-sea momentum flux. The wave model is forced by the sea-state dependent wind stress and includes the ocean surface current effect. The ocean model is forced by the sea-state dependent momentum flux and includes the ocean surface wave effects such as the Coriolis-Stokes and wave growth/decay effects. In this presentation we will focus on the sensitivity of the hurricane predictions to the parameterization of the sea state dependence of the momentum flux. We compare two different theories for calculating the wave form induced stress from modeled wave height spectrum. The primary differences include the impact of breaking waves, parameterization of the stress due to momentum flux from the wind into the waves and the feedback of the wave-induced stress on the wind profile. The first theory (Reichl et al. 2013) has no explicit breaking wave calculation, a wind stress parameterized wave-induced stress, and an energy conserving wave boundary layer wind profile. The second theory (Donelan et al. 2012) accounts for breaking waves, parameterizes the wave-induced stress from the wind speed, and attaches a logarithmic wind profile. We will also discuss the surface wave effect on the ocean model forcing and sea surface temperature prediction. It is shown that the effective wind forcing (momentum flux) on ocean currents may be significantly different from the wind stress under tropical cyclone conditions, where the surface wave field is typically less developed and more complex. The Coriolis-Stokes and wave growth/decay effects can lead to significant changes in SST response and thus the air-sea heat and moisture fluxes.

Understanding this, the Stanford researchers proposed coating objects with a material that not only reflects sunlight back into space, but also re-emits some of the thermal radiation it had absorbed within a wavelength range that does not become trapped in the atmosphere.

Before the concept of ice ages was proposed, Joseph Fourier in 1824 reasoned based on physics that Earth's atmosphere kept the planet warmer than would be the case in a vacuum. Fourier recognized that the atmosphere transmitted visible light waves efficiently to the earth's surface. The earth then absorbed visible light and emitted infrared radiation in response, but the atmosphere did not transmit infrared efficiently, which therefore increased surface temperatures. He also suspected that human activities could influence the radiation balance and Earth's climate, although he focused primarily on land-use changes. In an 1827 paper, Fourier stated,[15]

The physicist Claude Pouillet proposed in 1838 that water vapor and carbon dioxide might trap infrared and warm the atmosphere, but there was still no experimental evidence of these gases absorbing heat from thermal radiation.[20]

When it is assumed that the CO2 content of the atmosphere is doubled and statistical thermal equilibrium is achieved, the more realistic of the modeling efforts predict a global surface warming of between 2 C and 3.5 C, with greater increases at high latitudes.... we have tried but have been unable to find any overlooked or underestimated physical effects that could reduce the currently estimated global warmings due to a doubling of atmospheric CO2 to negligible proportions or reverse them altogether.

Estimating the effects of feedback processes, the pace of the warming, and regional climate change requires the use of mathematical models of the atmosphere, ocean, land, and ice (the cryosphere) built upon established laws of physics and the latest understanding of the physical, chemical and biological processes affecting climate, and run on powerful computers. Models vary in their projections of how much additional warming to expect (depending on the type of model and on assumptions used in simulating certain climate processes, particularly cloud formation and ocean mixing), but all such models agree that the overall net effect of feedbacks is to amplify warming.

There are two principal responses to climate change, mitigation and adaptation. The rate at which carbon dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gasses are released into the atmosphere can be decreased. This is termed mitigation and would reduce the magnitude of future climate change. Emission reductions can occur through either reduced energy demand, use of more efficient energy production technologies, and/or use of energy sources that produce no net greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon-free energy sources include renewable energy, geothermal energy, and nuclear energy.

Together with 01:750:227-228 forms a thorough introductory sequence. First term: graphs, orders of magnitude, units, dimensions, errors and precision, review of mathematics useful to physics, kinematics, vectors, force and Newton's laws. Second term: energy, momentum, rotational motion, oscillations, liquids, and thermal physics, including the laws of thermodynamics and the kinetic theory of gases.

Elementary but detailed analysis of fundamental topics. First term: review of mathematical skills useful for physics, vectors, kinematics, Newton's laws including gravitation, conservation laws, fluids, thermal physics. Second term: electricity and magnetism, geometrical and wave optics, relativity and modern physics.

Our story will include the nucleosynthesis of hydrogen and helium in the first few minutes after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago, the formation of stars from this primordial gas, and the forging of heavier elements, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, among all others within these stars' nuclear furnaces. Around at least one star in the Universe some of these heavy elements coagulated to form a rocky planet with a tenuous atmosphere. On this planet Earth, the energy from the star and the gas in the atmosphere were just right to allow the emergence of life. The energy that sustains us originated deep in the Sun, thanks to E=mc2 . The atoms that comprise our bodies were made inside dying stars. Literally, we are star dust. The goal of Physics 342 is to understand the physics of this remarkable story.

We will study the observed properties and physics of stars, including their internal structure, energy generation and transport, and their atmospheres. We will examine star formation, stellar evolution, and stellar remnants, including white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. 041b061a72


Think tank for dissolvable PP bag evolution.


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