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Nestor Guriev
Nestor Guriev

Ш§Щ„Ш­Щ„Щ‚Ш© 52


I have had trouble pronouncing and hearing the difference between these two letters. Some people say that one is always soft and one is always hard, but I see both of them before both hard and soft vowels, as well as seeing шь at the end of verbs with the subject ты. I am really confused and any help would be greatly appreciated.




Ш§Щ„Ш­Щ„Щ‚Ш© 52



Bulgarian, like a few other Slavic languages, uses the Cyrillic alphabet. There are some slight variations of this alphabet depending on the country. For example, Russian Cyrillic has a few different letters from the Bulgarian one and some letters that are identical but pronounced slightly differently.


Most words have a tonic accent, which will influence the way vowels are pronounced. For example, the o will be pronounced open when accentuated and closed when not. The audio recordings will help you get familiar with this.


At the end of a word, and before a voiceless consonant, the following voiced consonants turn into their voiceless counterparts: б, в, г, д, ж, з are pronounced respectively as п, ф, к, т, ш, с. You are maybe already familiar with this fact, as Slavic last names such as Borisov are pronounced Borisof .


Coord provides a standard notation for encoding locations by their latitude and longitude coordinates. It is primarily for specifying the WGS84 geographic coordinates of locations on Earth, at the same time emitting a machine-readable Geo microformat. However, it can also encode locations on natural satellites, dwarf planets, and planets other than Earth.


Latitude and longitude may be specified (with appropriate precision) either in decimal notation or as degrees/minutes/seconds. By default, coordinates appear in the format used to specify them. However, the format= parameter can be used to force display in a particular format.


Tools which read Wikipedia database dumps (such as Google Earth) often ignore inline coordinates. To ensure that coordinates are seen by these tools, one set should be displayed beside the title. See How do I get my Wikipedia article to show up in the Google Earth Geographic Web layer?. However, if multiple title coordinates appear on a single page, they will overlap, making them illegible.


The template GeoGroup can be used in an article with coordinates. This template creates links to mapping services which display all the coordinates on a single map, and links to other services which allow the coordinates to be used or downloaded in a variety of formats.


The first unnamed parameter following the longitude is an optional string of coordinate parameters, separated by underscores. These parameters help GeoHack select suitable map resources, and they will become more important when Wikimaps becomes fully functional.


The region: parameter specifies the political region for terrestrial coordinates. It is used to select appropriate map resources. If no region: parameter is provided, GeoHack attempts to determine the region from the coordinates.


The globe: parameter specifies the planet, dwarf planet, asteroid, or natural satellite upon which the coordinates reside. Apart from earth (the default), recognized values are: mercury, venus, moon, mars, phobos, deimos, ceres, vesta, ganymede, callisto, io, europa, mimas, enceladus, tethys, dione, rhea, titan, hyperion, iapetus, phoebe, miranda, ariel, umbriel, titania, oberon, triton, and pluto.


For globes other than Earth, coord does not assume a specific reference system (in contrast with Earth's WGS84). Since the template defaults to east longitude, the W direction must be specified for globes that measure longitude westward. At the present time, only limited mapping is available for Mars and the Moon and none for other extraterrestrial bodies. For celestial coordinates, use Sky instead.


Specifies, where present, the data source and data source format/datum, and optionally the original data, presented in parentheses. This is initially primarily intended for use by geotagging robots, so that data is not blindly repeatedly copied from format to format and Wikipedia to Wikipedia, with progressive loss of precision and attributability.


This template uses overloading which does not work well with the VisualEditor/TemplateData. Consider using "Edit source" instead of the visual editor until this defect is corrected. To facilitate visual editing in the mean time, consider using coordDec for signed decimal degrees, coordDMS when degrees minutes and seconds are specified, and coordDM when just degrees and minutes are given.


Your code has a problem: if you try to transliterate for example "щеки" to latin and then back to cyrillic it will produce something like "схтеки". The multi-byte characters must appear first in the array like this:


if you want double conversion with accuracy to every letter, you need to improve the methods a little bit.I have the translation used for the url, and the url parameter is searched with the database. That's why it's very important for me to keep exact characters without replacing one with the other.


This happened after a kernel update. Whenever I try to boot, my computer says Error getting authority: Error initializing authority: Could not connect: No such file or directory (g-io-error-quark, 1) Welcome to emergency mode!... followed by a bunch of things I can do.


It spits the same error out if I ctrl-d to boot into default mode, and the fstab file matches the drive UUIDs perfectly. But I think I found the culprit. When I run blkid, it takes a while, and then spits out blk_update_request: I/O error, dev fd0, sector 0 followed by the drives' data.


The problem was due to my swap being encrypted. So the local-premount script in initramfs was waiting for a swap device that was not available, until it timed out. The relevant message was gave up waiting for suspend/resume device.


Three scripts are currently used for the Tatar language: Arabic (in China[1]), Cyrillic (in Russia and Kazakhstan) and Latin (Poland,[2] Tatars of Turkey, Finland, the Czech Republic, Poland, the USA and Australia use the Tatar Latin alphabet at present[3]).


The most ancient of Tatar literature (Qíssai Yosıf by Qol-Ğäli, written in Old Tatar language) was created in the beginning of the 13th century. Until 1905 all literature was in Old Tatar, which was partly derived from the Bolgar language and not intelligible with modern Tatar. Since 1905 newspaper publishers started using modern Tatar. In 1918 the Arabic-based alphabet was revised: some new letters for Tatar sounds were added and some Arabic letters deleted. The Latin-based Jaꞑalif alphabet was in use between 1928 and 1939 and the Cyrillic-based alphabet has been used ever since.


The first unsuccessful attempt to publish a Tatar newspaper was in 1808, when professor of mathematics at Kazan University, I.I. Zapolsky, proposed publishing a newspaper "The Kazan News" in both Russian and Tatar languages. Zapolsky's untimely death in 1810 thwarted the project. The first successful attempt to publish a newspaper in Tatar was in 1905. On September 2, the first issue of the newspaper "Nur" was published in St. Petersburg by Gataulla Bayazitov. The second Tatar newspaper, "Kazan Muhbire," came into existence on October 29, 1905. The publisher of the newspaper was a member of the Kazan City Council, Saidgirey Alkin.


In 1930s Turkey became a potential enemy of the Soviet Union. Even though Turkish alphabet, introduced in 1928, was different from Jaꞑalif, for Soviet officials the Latin script was a symbol of the Western world. This motivated switching all Turkic languages of the USSR to Cyrillic script.


This was not the first project of introducing Cyrillic script for the Tatar language. Since 1861, the Keräşens ethnic group had used Nikolay Ilminsky's alphabet, based on pre-1917 Russian orthography which used fita and dotted I to spell Orthodox proper names, additional Cyrillic letters Ӓ, Ӧ, Ӱ for Tatar vowels, and the ligature Ҥ for [ŋ]. This alphabet is related to the Mari alphabet, and was used because Christian Tatars couldn't use the Arabic script. By the 1930s, Ilminsky's alphabet was forgotten and could not be used due to its religious origin. In 1938 professor M. Fazlullin introduced an adaptation of the Russian alphabet for the Tatar language, without any additional characters. Tatar sounds absent from Russian were to be represented with the digraphs Жь, Нь, Хь, Аь, Уь, Оь, Ый.[8][9]


Before the 1980s, in the listing of the alphabet, extra letters were placed after the Russian ones, as shown above. The Tatar Parliament changed the alphabetic order in January 1997 to the one shown below.[8]


Due to the Russian Federal law, only Cyrillic alphabets may have official status in regions of the Russian Federation. There is ongoing confrontation with regards to adoption of the Latin script for the Tatar language.


According to the decree "On restoring the Tatar alphabet based on Latin glyphs" from 1999, the new Latin alphabet would be in official use alongside the Cyrillic alphabet from 1 September 2001, and would become the sole alphabet in official use by 1 September 2011. Around the same time, the Republic of Karelia was pursuing official status for Karelian language, which also uses a Latin-based alphabet.[17] The Russian State Duma perceived the latinization of the two republics as a variety of language secessionism, and on 15 November 2002, they introduced an amendment into the law On the languages of the peoples of the Russian Federation stating that all official languages of the republics within the Russian Federation must use Cyrillic alphabets.[18]


The Republic of Tatarstan challenged the amendment in the Constitutional Court of Russia, arguing that the State Duma doesn't have authority over the language policies of the constituent republics.[19] On 16 November 2004, the Constitutional Court declined the appeal.[20] To comply with the court's decision, the decree "On restoring the Tatar alphabet based on Latin glyphs" was officially rescinded on 22 January 2005.[21] 041b061a72


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