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Angel Reyes
Angel Reyes

Rubbing


A rubbing (frottage) is a reproduction of the texture of a surface created by placing a piece of paper or similar material over the subject and then rubbing the paper with something to deposit marks, most commonly charcoal or pencil but also various forms of blotted and rolled ink, chalk, wax, and many other substances.[1] For all its simplicity, the technique can be used to produce blur-free images of minuscule elevations and depressions on areas of any size in a way that can hardly be matched by even the most elaborate, state-of-the-art methods. In this way, surface elevations measuring only a few thousandths of a millimeter can be made visible.[2]




rubbing


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Monument rubbing is not allowed without a permit from the Department of Cemeteries. The person(s) making the request must specify all lot numbers from which a rubbing is desired. A permit must be applied for each time monument rubbings are to be taken. Violation of any headstone rubbing regulations will void the permit and be sufficient grounds to deny future requests by the individual or group in violation.


The entire area to be rubbed shall be covered with paper held in place by masking tape. Inks, felt marking pens, or fiberglass-tip marking pens are not allowed for monument rubbing. Chalk, charcoal, crayons, or graphite are acceptable media. All tape and paper must be completely removed from the lot and all rubbish properly disposed of in trash receptacles or removed from cemetery property.


Environmental and genetic factors are considered one of the possible causes, some genetic defects that cause keratoconus[6], but there may still be many flaws to be discovered. In some cases, conical cornea appears in a number of family members, especially in families where kinship occurs[21]. Where scientists were able to identify a chromosome link has a role in this case. Keratoconus may be associated with other allergic diseases such as hay, eczema, asthma, this condition may be clearly related to the problem of eye rubbing, which may cause a rapid exacerbation. It may also affect people who use contact lenses[11].


In a survey that included 240 keratoconus patients, it was found that 65.6% of them had a history of eye rubbing[42]. McGhee et al[43] found that 48% of keratoconus patients rubbed their eyes. In the Saudi study, it was found that 44.8% of patients had eye rubbing[30]. Rabinowitz[44] in his case-control study reported that in 218 keratoconus patients and 183 healthy age-matched controls, eye rubbing was present in 83% of keratoconus subjects compared to 58% in healthy controls. A study from Iran showed that there was a healthy relationship between the positive history of eye rubbing and prevalence of keratoconus[31].


In Saudi study[30] it was reported that the most common risk factors between keratoconus patients were eye-rubbing representing 100%. Positive history of eye rubbing represented a higher frequency of keratoconus patients[45]. Corneal curvature becomes worse by the asymmetric eye rubbing[46]. Asymmetric keratoconus was found to be related to the eye that severely affected by abnormal eye rubbing[47]. Monocular keratoconus in a patient with bilateral eye-rubbing was found to be related to hand dominance[48]. Keratoconus develops after 14mo in case of chronic compulsive eye rubbing and psychogenic eye rubbing[12]. Also, it was found that eye rubbing was a significant risk factor in the development of keratoconus in patients with a history of parental consanguinity[10].


Purpose: Corneal scarring in keratoconus, which is observed prior to contact lens wear and in association with a chronic habit of abnormal rubbing, suggests a keratocyte change to a repair phenotype in response to rubbing trauma.


Results: Responses to eye rubbing (and possible causal links) may include increased corneal temperature, epithelial thinning, increased concentrations of inflammatory mediators in the precorneal tears, abnormal enzyme activity, large intraocular pressure spikes, high hydrostatic tissue pressure, thixotropically reduced ground substance viscosity, temporary displacement of ground substance from the corneal apex, buckling and flexure of fibrils associated with waves of corneal indentation, biomechanically coupled curvature transfer to the cone apex, slippage between collagen fibrils at the cone apex, and changes to keratocytes due to mechanical trauma and/or high hydrostatic pressure, in addition to scar formation. Cone formation appears to depend on a loss of shear strength and may be a consequence of a reduction in ground substance viscosity and glue function, which could allow the cornea to bend and yield to intraocular pressure.


Conclusions: For some forms of keratoconus, a reduction in shear strength and cone-forming deformation may be responses to rubbing trauma. Some of the mechanisms for corneal rubbing trauma may be relevant to post-laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis ectasia or complications following other types of corneal surgery. There appear to be indications for the control of chronic habits of abnormal rubbing.


Methods: The average rubbing force that patients with keratoconus apply to their eyelids was previously determined. Fresh porcine eyes with eyelids were either exposed to 10,500 rub cycles from a custom-built eye rubbing machine that rubbed with a similar force to knuckle human eye rubbing (n = 33) or no rubbing at all (control; n = 37). A total of 10,500 rubs are equivalent to 1 year of rubbing six times daily, five movements per rub. The corneal biomechanical properties of these eyes were then tested by measuring the elastic modulus of 5-mm strips.


Results: The elastic modulus at the range of 1% and 5% of strain was 1.219 0.284 and 1.218 0.304 N/mm2 in the eye rubbing group and the no-rub control group, respectively. Corneal stiffness was similar in both groups (P = .984).


Conclusions: The threshold to induce biomechanical changes (purely by eye rubbing) must be higher than 10,500 rubbing movements, suggesting that occasional eye rubbing may not affect corneal biomechanics in normal eyes, and likely only triggers keratoconus progression in predisposed corneas. Further in vivo studies assessing the impact eye rubbing has on inflammatory activity and the biomechanical properties of weakened corneas is warranted. [J Refract Surg. 2022;38(9):610-616.].


Clean your iPhone immediately if it comes into contact with contaminants that might cause stains, such as ink, dyes, makeup, dirt, food, oils, and lotions. To clean your iPhone, unplug all cables and turn it off. Use a soft, slightly damp, lint-free cloth. Avoid getting moisture in openings. Don't use window cleaners, household cleaners, compressed air, aerosol sprays, solvents, ammonia, or abrasives to clean your iPhone unless following the instructions for disinfecting your iPhone. The front glass surfaces have an oleophobic coating. To remove fingerprints, wipe these surfaces with a soft, lint-free cloth. The ability of this coating to repel oil will diminish over time with normal use, and rubbing the screen with an abrasive material will further diminish its effect and might scratch the glass.


Clean your iPhone immediately if it comes into contact with contaminants that might cause stains, such as ink, dyes, makeup, dirt, food, oils, and lotions. To clean your iPhone, unplug all cables and turn it off. Use a soft, slightly damp, lint-free cloth. Avoid getting moisture in openings. Don't use window cleaners, household cleaners, compressed air, aerosol sprays, solvents, ammonia, abrasives, or cleaners containing hydrogen peroxide to clean your iPhone unless following the instructions for disinfecting your iPhone. The front glass surfaces have an oleophobic coating. To remove fingerprints, wipe these surfaces with a soft, lint-free cloth. The ability of this coating to repel oil will diminish over time with normal use, and rubbing the screen with an abrasive material will further diminish its effect and might scratch the glass.


To clean the dirt that might accumulate around the SIM tray opening, use a soft lint-free cloth and place a very small amount of rubbing alcohol on it. Very gently wipe the dirt away from the port opening and avoid getting any of the moisture in the opening.


Clean your iPhone immediately if it comes into contact with contaminants that might cause stains, such as ink, dyes, makeup, dirt, food, oils, and lotions. To clean your iPhone, unplug all cables and turn off your iPhone (press and hold the Sleep/Wake button, and then drag the onscreen slider). Use a soft, slightly damp, lint-free cloth. Avoid getting moisture in openings. Don't use window cleaners, household cleaners, compressed air, aerosol sprays, solvents, ammonia, abrasives, or cleaners containing hydrogen peroxide to clean your iPhone unless following the instructions for disinfecting your iPhone. The front and back glass surfaces have an oleophobic coating. To remove fingerprints, wipe these surfaces with a soft, lint-free cloth. The ability of this coating to repel oil will diminish over time with normal use, and rubbing the screen with an abrasive material will further diminish its effect and might scratch the glass. 041b061a72


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